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General Relativity 01

Last updated: 2017-04-19 21:55:03 PDT.

### Topological space (definition dump)

**Definition (Topological space, open set)**: A topological space is a set with a collection of subsets of that satisfies:

- ;
- If , then ;
- If , then

Sets in are called "** open set**"s.

An example of a topology on contains all the

open intervalsin . Thus the name "open set"s.

**Definition (Induced topology)**: If is a topological space and is a subset of , we may make into a topological space by defining the topology , then forms a topology space. is called *induced* (or *relative*) topology.

**Definition (Product topology)**: If and are both topological spaces, the direct prodct of both naturally forms a topological space . is called the **product** topology.

NOTEThis lifts the dimension of the topological space.

Open balls on naturally form a topology.

**Definition (Continuous mapping)**: If and are topological spaces, a map is ** continuous** if the inverse image maps every open set in to an open set in .

**Definition (Homeomorphism)**: If is continuous, one-to-one, onto, and its inverse is continues, then is called a ** homeomorphism**, and the spaces are said to be "

**".**

*homeomorphic*

NOTENot to be confused withhomomorphismandhomomorphic.

**Definition (Closed set)**: The complement of an open set is called a "closed set". Sets in a topology can be open, close, both, or neither.

**Definition (Connected)**: The topology is said to be conneted if the only subsets that are both open and closed are and . is connected.

**Definition (Closure)**: If is a topological space, , the ** closure** is the intersection of all open sets that contains .

Properties:

- is closed;
- ;
- is closed.

NOTEMeaning "to make a set closed". Closure of a set is unique and is necessarily in the topology.

**Definition (Interior, Boundary)**: Interior of is defined as the union of all the open sets contained in . The boundy of , denoted (or ), is defined as elements in but not the interior of , .

NOTEalternatively, .

NOTEalternatively, .

NOTEalternatively, .

**Definition (Hausdorff)**: A topological space is ** Hausdorff** if any two distinct points can be included in two disjoint open sets.

is Hausdorff.

### Compactness

One of the most powerful notions in topology is that of compactness, which is defined as follows.

**Definition (Open cover)**: If is a topological space and a collection of open sets has , then is said to be an **open cover** of , and "**covers**" . Also if is a subset of , and , then is said to be an **open cover** of and "**covers**" . A subcollection of forms a subcover if it also covers (or ).

**Definition (Compact space)**: If every open cover can be written as finite subcover, then the topological space is compact.

Alternative definitions of compact space. The following are equivalent:

- A topological space is compact.
- Every open cover a has a finite subcover.
- has a sub-base such that every cover of the space by members of the sub-base has a finite subcover (Alexander's sub-base theorem).
- Any collection of closed subsets of with the finite intersection property has nonempty intersection.
- Every net on X has a convergent subnet (see the article on nets for a proof).
- Every filter on X has a convergent refinement.
- Every ultrafilter on X converges to at least one point.
- Every infinite subset of X has a complete accumulation point.

**Definition (Open cover of a set, subcover of a set)**: If is a topological space and is a subset of . A open cover is a open cover of if .
A subcover that also covers is called a subcover of .

**Definition (Compact subset)**: is said to be compact if **every** open cover of A has a finite subcover.

The relation ship between compact space and compact subset is given by these two theorems:

- Compact subset of a Hausdorff space is closed.
- Closed subset of a compact space is compect.

**Heine-Borel Theorem**. A closed interval of is compact.

Open interval is not compact (since the open cover has no finite subcover).

A subset of is compact iff it is closed and bounded.

NOTEA unbounded set can totally be closed. For example, is obviously unbounded and closed.

Let and be topological spaces. Suppose is compact and is continuous. Then is compact.

NOTEThis transfers compactness through homeomorphisms.

A continuous function from a compact topological space into is bounded and attains its maximum and minimum values.

**Tychonoff theorem**: Product of compact topological spaces is compact. Given the axiom of choice, the number of such spaces can be infinite.

An application of these is that is compact, because 1) the sphere in is closed and bounded, therefore compact; 2) there is a continuous function from to .

### Convergence of sequences

To extend the normal definition of sequence convergence, a sequence of points in a topological space is said to converge to point if . is called the limit of the sequence.

A point is said to be a **accumulation point** of if every open neiborhood of contains infinitely many points of the sequence.

NOTEThe difference between a limit and an accumulation point is that the former requires a particular set of infinite points in . For example, the alternating sequence has two accumulation points and , but it does not have a limit.

**Definition (First countable)**: For every point in , if there is a countable collection of open sets that for every neiborhood of , contains at least one element in .

**Definition (Second countable)**: There is a countable collection of open sets that every open set can be written as the union of some of the sets in the collections. The sets in that collection are called **basis**.

NOTEThe basis of alinear spaceis a collection ofvectors, s.t. every vector in the space is alinear combinationof the basis. The basis of atopological spaceis a collection ofopen sets, s.t. every opens set in the space is aunionof the basis.

NOTEis second countable. Open balls with rational radii centered on rational coordinates can form a countable collection of open sets.

NOTEEvery second countable space is first countable.

The relationship between compactness and convergence of sequences is expressed by Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem:

**Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem** Let be a topological space and let

- If is compact, then every infinite sequence of points in has a accumulation point lying in ;
- Conversely, if is second countable and every sequence in has an accumulation point in , then is compact.

Thus, in particular, if is second countable, is compact iff every sequence in has a convergent subsequence whose limit lies in .

### Paracompactness

**Definition (Neighborhood)** Given in topological space , a ** neighborhood** of is a subset of that includes an open set containing :

NOTE: may not be open, but it contains a open set that contains .

**Definition (Refinement of an open cover)**: Open cover of is said to be a refinement of open cover of if .

NOTERefinements forms a partially ordered set.

NOTESubcover is always a refinement of a open cover. A refinement of a open cover is not always a subcover.

**Definition (Locally finite)**: is **locally finite** if each has an open neighborhood such that only finitely many satisfy .

NOTECompactness requires a finite subcover, locally finiteness only requires a finte refinement. It is a weaker requirement.

**Definition (Paracompactness)**: A space is paracompact if every open cover has a locally finite refinement.

NOTE: Locally finiteness is weaker than finitenes of subcovers. Therefore every compact space is paracompact.

NOTE: (wiki) Every metric space is paracompact. A topological space is metrizable if and only if it is a paracompact and locally metrizable Hausdorff space. Paracompactness has little to do with the notion of compactness, but rather more to do with breaking up topological space entities into manageable pieces.

A paracomact manifold implies:

- admits a Riemannian metric and
- is second countable.

The most important implication is that a paracompact manifold will have a partition of unity.

**Definition (Partition of unity)**: If is a topological space, and is a set of continuous functions from to unit interval , such that for every point :

- there is a neighborhood of where all but finite number of functions in are , and
- the sum of all the functions at is :

This is for the ease of defining integrals on the manifold.